Vaccinate Your Baby

Are They Safe?

  • Vaccines & Autism
  • Too Many Vaccines?
  • Historical Perspective
  • Vaccine Regulation
  • Expert Commentary
  • Institute of Medicine Studies
  • Research & Studies
  • A Mother's Choice

Research & Studies

Stay informed by studying the science. These peer-reviewed articles and studies by medical experts adhere to rigorous scientific standards. Because they are administered broadly to healthy people, vaccines are among the most carefully studied and monitored medicines on the market today.

Scientific Studies

This section provides abstracts of peer-reviewed studies that have looked at the possible relationship between vaccines and autism. In addition, this section provides a chart of the most recent peer-reviewed scientific studies on thimerosal and autism.



Studies Examining the Childhood Immunization Schedule and Safety

"Safety of Vaccines Used for Routine Immunization of US Children: A Systematic Review."
Pediatrics, Maglione et al. (July 1, 2014)

"Childhood Immunization Schedule and Safety: Stakeholder Concerns, Scientific Evidence, and Future Studies" - Institute of Medicine of the National Academies, Board on Population Health and Public Health Practice (January 16, 2013)

Study Examining the Reduction of Disease Burden

"Historical Comparisons of Morbidity and Mortality for Vaccine-Preventable Disease in the United States" - Journal of the American Medical Association, Sandra W. Roush, MT, MPH and Trudy V. Murphy, MD (Volume 298, Number 18, November 14, 2007)

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Measles-Mumps-Rubella (MMR) Vaccine and Autism Studies

"Safety of Vaccines Used for Routine Immunization of US Children: A Systematic Review."
Pediatrics, Maglione et al. (July 1, 2014)

"Lack of Association Between Measles Virus Vaccine and Autism with Enteropathy: A Case-Control Study"
-PLoS One, Hornig M, Briese T, Buie T, Bauman ML, Lauwers G, et al. (September 2008)

"Measles Vaccination and Antibody Response in Autism Spectrum Disorders"
-Archives of Disease in Childhood, Gillian Baird, F.R.C.Paed. (February 2008)

"Pervasive Developmental Disorders in Montreal, Quebec, Canada: Prevalence and Links With Immunizations"
-Pediatrics, Eric Fombonne, MD (Volume 118, Number 1, July 2006)

"MMR Vaccination and Pervasive Developmental Disorders: A Case-Control Study"
The Lancet, Liam Smeeth, MRCGP (September 11, 2004)

"Association of Autistic Spectrum Disorder and the Measles, Mumps, and Rubella Vaccine"
Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, Kumanan Wilson, MD, MSc, FRCP (July 2003)

"Neurologic Disorders After Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccination"
Pediatrics, Annamari Makela, MD (Volume 110, Number 5, November 2002)

"No Evidence for a New Variant of Measles-Mumps-Rubella-Induced Autism"
Pediatrics, Eric Fombonne, FRCPsych (Volume 108, Number 4, October 2001)

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Thimerosal and Autism Studies

Prenatal and Infant Exposure to Thimerosal From Vaccines and Immunoglobulins and Risk of Autism
Pediatrics, Cristofer S. Price, ScM, William W. Thompson, PhD et al. (September 13, 2010)

Continuing Increases in Autism Reported to California's Developmental Services System — Archives of General Psychiatry, Robert Schechter, MD, MSc and Judith K. Grether, PhD (January 2008)

"Early Thimerosal Exposure and Neuropsychological Outcomes at 7 to 10 Years" — New England Journal of Medicine, Thompson WW, Price C, Goodson B, et al. (September 27, 2007)

“Lack of Association Between Rh Status, Rh Immune Globulin in Pregnancy and Autism” — American Journal of Medical Genetics, Judith H. Miles and T. Nicole Takahashi (May 2007)

"Comparison of Blood and Brain Mercury Levels in Infant Monkeys Exposed to Methylmercury or Vaccines Containing Thimerosal"
Environmental Health Perspectives, Thomas M. Burbacher, PhD (April 2005)

"Thimerosal Exposure in Infants and Developmental Disorders: A Prospective Cohort Study in the United Kingdom Does Not Support a Causal Association"
Pediatrics, John Heron and Nick Andrews, PhD and Jean Golding, DSc (September 2004)

"Neurotoxic Effects of Postnatal Thimerosal Are Mouse Strain Dependent"
Molecular Psychiatry, M Hornig, MD (June 2004)

"Safety of Thimerosal-Containing Vaccines: A Two-Phased Study of Computerized Health Maintance Organization Database"
- Pediatrics, Thomas Verstraeten, MD (November 2003)

"Association Between Thimerosal-Containing Vaccine and Autism"
Journal of the American Medical Association, Anders Hviid, MSc (October 2003)

"Thimerosal and the Occurrence of Autism: Negative Ecological Evidence from Danish Population-Based Data"
Pediatrics, Kreesten M. Madsen, MD (September 2003)

"Autism and Thimerosal-Containing Vaccines: Lack of Consistent Evidence for an Association"
American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Paul Stehr-Green, DrPh, MPH (August 2003)

"Thimerosal and Autism?"
Pediatrics, Karen Nelson, MD (March 2003)

"Mercury concentrations and metabolism in infants receiving vaccines containing thiomersal: A descriptive study"
The Lancet, Michael Pichichero, MD (November 2002)

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Medical Community Statements

"Study Fails to Show a Connection Between Thimerosal and Autism"
- American Academy of Pediatrics (Spring 2003)

"Time to Look Beyond MMR in Autism Research"
- The Lancet (Volume 359, February 23, 2002)

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Learn More

  • American Academy of Family Physicians
  • American Academy of Pediatrics
  • American Medical Association
  • Autism Science Foundation
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
  • Emory Vaccine Center
  • Every Child By Two
  • Families Fighting Flu
  • The History of Vaccines
  • Immunization Action Coalition
  • Johns Hopkins Institute of Vaccine Safety
  • Meningitis Angels
  • National Foundation for Infectious Diseases
  • National Meningitis Association
  • National Network for Immunization Information
  • Parents of Kids with Infectious Diseases
  • Shot By Shot
  • The Vaccine Education Center at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia
  • Voices for Vaccines
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